Vitamins and Minerals

Vitamins and Minerals

vitamins-minerals

Balance Diet:– It means a diet which contains right amount and types of foods and drink to provide essential nutrients and energy required for proper development of the body cells, tissue and organs. Balance diet should contain right amount of vitamins and minerals for overall development of the body.

Vitamins:

-Invented by Cashimer Funk
-Vitamins are organic compounds required in small quantities for optimal health.
-It enhances the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
– Vitamins are required for growth in children, formation of hormones, blood cells, tissues and bones.
-Vitamins cannot be synthesised/produced by the human body, thus, our diet must contain vitamins.

Vitamins are further divided into two groups-

(1) Fat soluble vitamins, and
(2) Water soluble vitamins.
Fat soluble vitamins – A, D, E and K.
Water soluble vitamins –Vitamin-B complex (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12), C and Folic acid.
VITAMINS :
Vitamin
Chemical Name
Food Sources
Deficiency Diseases
A
Retinol
Milk, eggs, fish, butter, cheese and liver.
Night blindness, Skin dryness.
B1
Thiamine
Legumes, whole grain, nuts.
Beri-beri.
B2
Riboflavin
Egg, milk, cheese, nuts, bread products.
Inflammation of tongue, sores in the corners of the mouth.
B3
Niacin or Nicotinic acid
Meat, fish, pea nuts, whole grain.
skin disease, diarrhoea, depression, dementia.
B5
Pantothenic acid
Eggs, liver, dairy products.
Fatigue, muscle cramp.
Pellagra
B6
Pyridoxine
Organ meats, cereals, corn.
Anaemia, kidney stones, nausea, depression.
B12
Cyanocobalamin
Meat, fish.
pale skin, constipation, fatigue.
C
Ascorbic acid
Oranges, tomatoes, sweet and white potatoes.
Scurvy, anaemia, ability to fight infections decreases.
D
Calciferol
Direct sunlight, fish oils, eggs.
Rickets, osteomalacia.
E
Tocopherol
Vegetable oils, olives, tomatoes, almonds, meat, eggs.
Neurological problems, problems of reproductive system.
K
Phylloquinone or Naphthoquinone
Soyabeans, green leafy vegetables, dairy products, meat.
Failure to clot blood.
विटामिन A,B,C,D,E and K के रासायनिक नाम
Trick– रथ एक टाफी
विटामिन A – र –रेटिनाल
विटामिन B – थ –थायमीन
विटामिन C- ए –एस्कार्बिक अम्ल
विटामिन D – क –कैल्सीफ़ेरोल
विटामिन E – टा –टोकोफ़ेराल
विटामिन K – फी –फ़िलिक्वोनोन

DEFICIENCY DISEASES:

1. Anaemia
It is caused due to deficiency of mineral Iron.
2. Ariboflavinosis
It is caused due to deficiency of Vitamin B2.
3. BeriBeri
It is caused due to deficiency of Vitamin B.
4. Goitre
It is caused due to deficiency of Iodine.
5. Impaired clotting of the blood
It is caused due to deficiency of Vitamin K.
6. Kwashiorkor
It is caused due to deficiency of Protein.
7. Night Blindness
It is caused due to deficiency of Vitamin A.
8. Osteoporosis
It is caused due to deficiency of mineral Calcium.
9. Rickets
It is caused due to deficiency of Vitamin D.
10. Scurvy
It is caused due to deficiency of Vitamin C.

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